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The Imperative of Invention: Brazilian Concrete Poetry and Intersemiotic Creation
Charles A. Perrone

Haroldo de Campos in UbuWeb Historical
Augusto de Campos in UbuWeb Historical
Decio Pignatari in UbuWeb Historical
"Concrete Poetry: A World View : Brazil" in UbuWeb Papers
"Interview with Augusto de Campos" Roland Greene
"The Concrete Historical" Roland Greene
Sérgio Bessa "Architecture Versus Sound in Concrete Poetry"
"Speaking About Genre: the Case of Concrete Poetry" Victoria Pineda
"From (Command) Line to (Iconic) Constellation", Kenneth Goldsmith
Haraldo de Campos, from: Galáxias "Circuladô de fulô"

In late 1991 a São Paulo newspaper, reporting on a celebration of the centenary of the famed Paulista Avenue, covered a special event: street readings and laser-cannon projections of poems by the Mexican writer Octavio Paz, the local visual designer Walter Silveira, the pop music star and neo-concrete poet Arnaldo Antunes, and the Noigandres group that had conceptualized poesia concreta in the mid-1950sAugusto de Campos (b. 1931), Haroldo de Campos (b. 1929), and Décio Pignatari (b. 1927).1 Multi-media elements converged in South America's largest metropolis to link the present of an ever-advancing communication technology to the infancy of concrete poetry in Brazil, its extra-literary evolution, and its global context.

In many respects, the international movement of concrete poetry of the 1950s and sixties grew out of Brazilian initiatives.2 In the peripheral, Portuguese-speaking nation of Brazil, the theory and practice of poesia concreta developed more intensively than anywhere else; and the controversial experiments and innovations of the Noigandres group, from their inception through unresolved current debates, have had perhaps their most significant effects on poetic practice in Brazil.3 In 1958, international and national currents flowed together in the "pilot plan for concrete poetry," a compilation of interdisciplinary ideas from earlier manifestos and articles. One of the best capsule definitions of the spatially-oriented minimalism of poesia concreta appears in that text: tensão de palavras-coisas no espaço-tempo ("tension of word-things in time-space").4 Campos, Pignatari, and Campos adapted specific elements of the experimental works of key modern authors: Mallarmé's "prismatic sub-division of ideas," Pound's ideogrammatic method, Joyce's concept of the "verbivocovisual," Cummings's expressive typography and wordplay, and Apollinaire's calligramme.5 Further, the Noigandres group tapped two national resources: the modernist poetics of the iconoclast Oswald de Andrade (1890-1954), particularly his cubist poesia-minuto and "Anthropophagous Manifesto" (1928), and the economical verse of João Cabral de Melo Neto (b. 1920).6 Before these sources were actually amalgamated in their theory and practice, to be sure, the Noigandres poets had already shown daring and imagination in the domain of mid-century lyric; but the leap they made to concrete poetry was so radical that it cannot simply be attributed to a reaction against prevailing values. The ingenious "planned adventure" of Campos, Pignatari, and Campos could not have occurred without their unusual preparation in poetics, music, and the other arts. The first identified poesia concreta in Brazil, for instance, Augusto de Campos's colorful Poetamenos (1953), is modeled on Anton Webern's klangfarbenmelodie; an inaugural 1956 exhibition of cooperative arte concreta featured poster poems alongside artwork.7 Artists and poets alike aimed at non-representational impersonality and an objectification that would foreground shape and the other physical properties of working materials.

"By putting emphasis on the materiality of language," Augusto de Campos later said, "concrete poetry responded to the provocation of new communciation media."8 Such claims of technocultural conditioning recur, relatively undeveloped, in explanations of concrete poetry, which was held by its creators to be consistent with "a kind of contemporary 'forma mentis' imposed by posters, slogans, headlines. . . [that] makes urgent the rapid communication of cultural objects."9 The isomorphic visual fields of concrete texts allowed, in theory, for a reception in keeping with the mindset of the age of billboards and television. Yet in Campos's declaration one may wonder: what provocation? what new media? Assuming that he implies a role for concrete as the poetry of the TV age, the frame of reference must be international. Brazilian television, hardly off the ground when the "pilot plan" was issued, did not become a major factor in the shaping of national consciousness until the 1970s. In this sense, concrete poetry was well ahead of its time in Brazil; it represented an anticipation of, rather than a response to, new media of communication.

The Noigandres poets, operating in times of democratic growth and cultural assertion, sought to reconcile formalism, technology, and social relevance. Much Brazilian cultural discourse of the mid-1950s was tinged by an awareness of colonialism and of the hegemonic relationships between industrialized nations and the Third World; Brazilian intellectuals were particularly sensitive to the implications of underdevelopment. During the presidency of Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-1961), master plans for industrialization and economic advancementwith the slogan "fifty years in five"fostered a climate of optimism. Poesia concreta was conceived in the years immediately preceding the Kubitschek administration. The actual movement unfolded in, and experienced, the forward-looking euphoria of "developmentalism." It was in the interest of the Noigandres group's declared vanguard to make "a poetry on the level of a modern society." Within and beyond the literary sphere, "the signs of modernity and technique . . . were appraised as the bearers of a transforming consciousness, able to overcome archaic structures." The wish for modernity could lead to "abstract affirmations of a vocation for the future, as if the perspective of overcoming underdevelopment were imminent," and the concrete poets "celebrated the signs of modern times."10 The most vivid enactment of Brazilian growth was the "pilot plan" for the construction of the new capital, Brasilia, which Haroldo de Campos retrospectively called "an epistemological metaphor for the capacity for innovation of the Brazilian artist."11 The concrete poets echoed the innovative capital-city project by calling their manifesto a "pilot plan," and recognized architecture as the representative art of the period; while this identification was avowedly spiritual rather than political or partisan, since concrete poetry was not actually linked to any government agency or cultural plan, it nonetheless starkly expresses the vanguard's participation in its original moment of the mid-fifties. Still, the implications of treating the Noigandres group as a manifestation of its period are numerous, and must be treated delicately. Asked in retrospect if Pignatari's aim of "making poems on the level of industrial objects rationally planned and produced" coupled the concrete endeavor to the institutional thought of the late 1950s, Haroldo de Campos emphasizes an epochal ambience, and disavows links with official "developmentalist ideology."12 In doing so, Campos likely responds to latter-day commentaries on the Kubitschek regime and its failures, and by association, those of concrete poetry. Utopian designs provided a "contextual backing," Haroldo affirms, but concrete poetry was always essentially a "literary rupture against discursive poetry" in an "excentric" country where such thinking was possible.13 The thought of the period favored the concrete vanguard as a collective which, with a more just society on the horizon, could produce new poetic forms.

In the more radical political climate of the years immediately following the Cuban revolution, some social and literary critics challenged the appropriateness of concrete poetry as an experimental avant-garde in a severely imbalanced, underdeveloped country. In an article of 1962, Haroldo de Campos was obliged to address the question of whether a "literature for export" can be produced in such conditions. The primal attempt to refashion the relations between Brazilian and other literatures had been one of the Noigandres group's principal local models: Oswald de Andrade's cannibalistic "deglutition," or the critical assimilation of foreign information and re-elaboration in national terms. Moreover, Campos found support for the concrete project in the concept of "sociological reduction": in given circumstances, a people can develop a "critical consciousness" and, no longer satisfied to import finished products, develop other objects that, in terms of both form and function, express and satisfy new historical demands.14 This "reduction" can apply not only to things but, Campos argues, to ideas as well. The process goes from importation to production of new things/ideas, and then to export. The literary instance, of course, is concrete poetry, which arose "in Brazilian conditions, [among poets and readers] living in an urban reality (as national as the rural), where one could ponder the machine, technical civilization, the relationship of men (workers) and machines, the relationship of men (workers) and new architecture, and their respective contradictions, in conditions that could never occur, for example, to a bearded artiste of the 'Left Bank'. . ." The linchpin in the argument is that concrete poetry, "the most radical totalization of a master line of poetics of our time, truly critical and committed to the physiognomy of its time, was exported."15 Campos's palpable pride here parallels Mayakovski's exclamation in 1922 that for the first time the Russian Constructivists, instead of the French, had the latest word in art. In the 1960s, with increasing international interest in Brazilian concrete poetry, an innovative art was exported, as Andrade had theorized. The process of importationthe conventional flow of information from metropolis to colonywas turned around. Whereas in its industrial strategy for import substitution Brazil gained new assembly-line production capabilities while the relevant technological knowledge remained in its countries of origin, in the case of concrete poetry "we exported know-how."16

The concrete poetry that Brazilians exhibited abroad developed in three stages between the early 1950s and the late 1960s. In the first phase (1953-1956), "organic" or "phenomenological" production was keyed by the spatialization of lines and dispersion of wordsas in, for instance, Augusto de Campos's "lygia fingers" from Poetamenos, with which the second "renaissance" of the Widener exhibition begins. In the second phase (1956-1961) of "classical," "high," or "orthodox" concrete poetry, poets generated textssuch as Pignatari's "terra"according to rational, "mathematical" principles of composition. After 1962, more fluid and flexible notions of "invention" prevailed. This period covers the publications of the anthology Teoria da Poesia Concreta (1965) and of the interdisciplinary journal Invenção (to 1967). The diversification of this last phase includes deliberately socio-political pieces; "semantic variations" and the densely alliterative and paronomastic prose-poetry of Haroldo de Campos's unique Galáxias; Augusto de Campos's semanticized collages; Pignatari's and other poets' creative advertisements and lexically-keyed "semiotic poems"; and such varied contributions as Edgard Braga's tatuagens ("tattooings"), Pedro Xisto's logograms, and other specimens that move toward a literal materiality of visuality and intermedia.17 After what Pignatari called "concrete without words," the ontology of the poem was questioned in absolute terms. By the mid-1960s, the bounds of poetry, qua verbal art, began to dissolve into graphic art.18 In what was called poema processo (1967-1973), words give way to semaphoric codes, abstract animations, and collage. Processo, with the last of a series of group manifestos, represents the complete exhaustion of the poem as a literary construct in Brazil.19

Following the experimentalism and political poetry of the 1960s, Brazilian poetry of the seventies and early eighties was highly pluralistic. Production seemed spontaneous by comparison, without documents, platforms, or missionary goals. Poetry of the generation born between, say, the mid-1940s and the mid-fifties encompasses, on one extreme, so-called "marginal poetry" characterized by neo-romantic colloquialism; this mini-press production has been understood as a reaction against concrete intellectualization and non-orality. On the other extreme, there are the graphic assemblages of self-styled poesia intersignos.20 A more general term, "intersemiotic creation," covers publications (often including later Noigandres output) built on interplay among sign systemsvaried spatio-typographic representations, illustrated verse, photographs, and other combinationsand might also include "constructivist" lyric.21 In this arena, natural tensions arose between subjective expressivity and objective optical concerns: symptomatically, the poet Régis Bonvicino (b. 1955) called himself "a signic reporter" and "a concretist who didn't know what to do with his heart."22 Essentially lyrical poets, for instance Duda Machado (b. 1944) and Carlos Avila (b. 1956), showed interest in industrial languages (such as advertising) and the extra-verbal aspects of text production (such as image, font, color, etc.). Aspiring "constructivists" fashioned verse with a sharp awareness of phonetics, alphabetic qualities, and textual shape, exhibiting an expected sense of rigor and consciousness in text-making, and valuing the subordination of experience to linguistic explorations. In many of these pursuits, fracture, paronomasia, and concision figure prominently.

In this era, the marks of concretismoconcrete poetry as well as criticism, theory, and the translations by the Noigandres groupare extremely varied. Song was a recognized channel for poetry, and Augusto de Campos's interest in popular music prompted experimentation that included concrete concepts.23 Poets' stressing of semiosis over emotive and referential functions implies a clear but non-restrictive recognition of concretist ideals. While manifestations reminiscent of "organic" and "inventive" concrete are numerous, "orthodox" concrete figures only as a historical referent, which reflects its unique character. The main poetic influence of Noigandres may occur in a continuing propensity toward brevity: see, for example, Machado's minimalist placard cachê / michê / clichê (1977), a deliberate throwback to the boldface ideograms of the late fifties. However influential concrete poetry is judged to have been in the 1970s, the term "post-concrete" is of essentially chronological value.24

During this continuing rediscovery of lyric, there were many assertions of its generic limitations and its interrelations with music and the plastic arts. Young voices eagerly expressed new modes of socio-cultural perplexity in the context of technological expansion and the military dictatorship of 1964 to 1985. Machado's ROSA TATUADA (1974), shown here, evokes prison experience during the dictatorship ("the long prison visit / great love for the bay of Guanabara / a sinister coincidence"); within the triangle formed by the words "policial," "political," and "poetic," it displays a prisoner's tattoo, and at the bottom of the page offers a gloss on this mysterious text.25 This generation of poets was driven to question the place of poetry, to explore genres, to test boundaries. Extra-verbal materials are transferred to the page as phatic or expressionistic devices. Intentional testings of the page extend to the probing of the book format itself and to the fabrication of alternative containers for text. A notable experiment is Eliane Zagury's humorous "mercado" (1970), six overlaid concentric word-wheels with do-it-yourself instructions for more-than-a-book's-worth of combinations. Groups and individuals divulged poetry (often along with "graphocentric" items) in different paper sizes and colors, in bags, binders, and folders. In such cases, physical variations allow for individuality or particularity within the context of an ad hoc collective (group) or of a collection (of the same author).

Playfulness (ludismo), juxtaposition of codes, and displays of instruments figure constantly in typical work by "intersemiotic" or "constructivist" poets. A guiding creative mindset organizes Antônio Risério's joining of image and topical versedual photos of an infant emerging from a giant eggshell and custom Oriental typography set off a rhyming quatrain: "laughter cracks good sense / rivers change plumage / upon the rebirth from ashes / of the kamikaze of language" (1977).26 Some post-concrete experimenters have been influenced by electronics to the point of making it the substance of texts. An up-to-date example of the reach of technology into verbal page art is Philadelpho Menezes's photo of calculator digits (612309) and its flipped negative, which spells "poesia" (1980).27 This invocation of lyric through computer chip embodies an ambivalence shared by numerous poets of his generation and outlook: a concern for poetry per se with an aversion to the standard props of lyrical convention. Such examples seek to establish their difference in reply to an inherited imperative of invention. Behind these "intersemiotic" experiments one finds acceptance of the mid-1950s' declaration of the demise of traditional verse, a sense that the manipulation of visuality represents in itself an "advanced" practice, and a belief that the experimental options opened by concrete poetry are still worth pursuing.

Notwithstanding semi- or quasi-verbal efforts, what stands out of recent production is a recovery of the word that manages not to renounce the visible synthesis achieved in concrete poetry. Since 1975, Augusto de Campos has enriched phraseological fields with graphic elements typeface, color, layout that reinforce the effects or functions of de facto (though perhaps unacknowledged) structural constituents such as tone, mood, space, and abstract meaning. The timely poem "pós-tudo" is a "post-everything" questioning of post-modernism as fashion and an ambiguous affirmation (mudo = "mute" / "I change") of silence (implying all has been said) and mutability (implying the subject's representation of the principle of perpetual change).28 For his part, Haroldo de Campos's rethinking of lyric and his notion of the "post-utopian poem" are informed by a sense of the continual historical transformations that poetry undergoes.29 Concrete poetry as vanguard movement, in turn, can now be seen only in historical perspective. Still, the Noigandres project remains a model of interdisciplinary potential for lyric and, especially, of concern for the concrete qualities of language. The aims of both Campos brothers, of making a poetry in step with present realities, remain aggressively attentive to linguistic substance, for whether in the Renaissance or near the end of the twentieth century, these custodians of a thirty-five year-old vanguard maintain, "all poets converge at the materiality of the linguistic sign. This [concern for materiality] exists in a poem by Camões in the same way it exists in a poem by e.e. cummings, or in some supposedly Concrete poem."30 And a poetry adapted to current conditions must keep in sight, in new verse on the page as much as in laser projections of established texts, the horizon of invention.


1 Folha de São Paulo, Dec. 11, 1991, sec. 5, p. 3. This cosmopolitan daily was also celebrating its own seventieth year. Antunes is a songwriter-vocalist for Os Titãs, one of Brazil's foremost rock groups, and the author of Psia (São Paulo: Expressão, 1986) and Tudos (São Paulo: Iluminuras, 1990), which feature non-discursive texts with optical effects generated on a Macintosh computer.

2 See the primary English-language reference for international history, documentation, and anthology: Mary Ellen Solt, ed., Concrete Poetry: A World View (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970). A rare but very important source is the catalogue of the Ruth and Marvin Sackner Archive of Concrete and Visual Poetry (Miami Beach: privately printed, 1986). The most complete bibliography on Brazilian concrete poetry appears in Código 11(1986), no pagination. The present paper cites English-language sources wherever possible.

3 "Concrete poetry" was launched in conjunction with the Swiss-Bolivian Eugen Gomringer in a purposefully international gesture, and German-language material has remained in the forefront with Brazilian output. Since about 1960, the adjective (and sometimes, as occasionally in this essay, the noun) "concrete" has also referred to (non-)verbal experiments on the printed page ("chaotic" text, scribbles, neo-lettrism, etc.) which are not comparable to "high" Brazilian concrete poetry, of which the official vehicle is the so-called verbivocovisual ideogram. As Claus Clüver, "From Imagism to Concrete Poetry: Breakthrough or Blind Alley?," Amerikanische Lyrik, ed. Rudolf Haas (Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 1987), p. 125, notes: "There is no real US-American equivalent to the Brazilian Concrete ideogram." As for theory, Caroline Bayard, The New Poetics in Canada and Quebec: From Concretism to Post-Modernism (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989), p. 22, writes: "The historian of concrete poetry would look upon the Brazilian theoretical texts as the richest and most articulate contribution."

4 Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, and Haroldo de Campos, "plano-piloto para poesia concreta," Teoria da Poesia Concreta: Textos Críticos e Manifestos 1950-1960, 3rd ed. (São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1987), p. 156. The "pilot plan" originally appeared in the portfolio Noigandres 4 (1958) in bi-lingual format, rpt. in Concrete Poetry, ed. Solt, pp. 72-73. Representative articles from Teoria da Poesia Concreta are available in Jon M. Tolman's translation in Poetics Today 3 (1982): Augusto de Campos, "The Concrete Coin of Speech" (originally published 1956), 167-76; Haroldo de Campos, "The Informational Temperature of the Text" (1960), 177-87; and Pignatari, "Concrete Poetry: A Brief Structural-Historical Guideline" (1957), 189-95.

5 These sources are discussed in numerous studies, including Concrete Poetry, ed. Solt, pp. 12-14. Douglas Thompson, "Pound and Brazilian Concretism," Paideuma 6 (1977), 279-94, scans the strategic use of the predecessors. A complete study is Frederick George Rodgers, "The Literary Background of Brazilian Concrete Poetry: The Impact of Pound, Mallarmé and Other Major Writers on the 'Noigandres' Group," Dissertation, Indiana University, 1974. Received theories of visual composition also had an influence: for example, Eisenstein's writings on ideogram and montage are cited in the "pilot plan."

6 On these authors and modernism in Brazil, and for further bibliography, see Dictionary of Brazilian Literature, ed. Irwin Stern (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1988), pp. 27-29, 196-99, and 203-08. Leslie Bary's annotated translation of the manifesto appears in Latin American Literary Review 38 (1991), 35-47.

7 See Claus Clüver, "Klangfarbenmelodie in Polychromatic Poems: A. von Webern and A. de Campos," Comparative Literature Studies 18 (1981), 386-98. On the term arte concreta and its background in the arts, see Felipe Boso, "Concretism," Corrosive Signs: Essays on Experimental Poetry (Visual, Concrete, Alternative), ed. César Espinosa, trans. Harry Polkinhorn (Washington, D.C.: Maisonneuve Press, 1990), pp. 44-50. For the socio-cultural context of artistic events of the early 1950s in Brazil, see Antônio Sérgio Lima Mendonça and Alvaro de Sá, Poesia de Vanguarda no Brasil: De Oswald de Andrade ao Poema Visual (Rio de Janeiro: Antares, 1983), pp. 93-98, as well as pp. 102-07 for details of the first exhibition.

8 In a sequence of the short film "Poema Cidade" by Tata Amaral and Francisco César Filho (1986), shown at the exhibition "Brazilian Concrete and Visual Poetry from the Ruth and Marvin Sackner Archive," University of Florida, Gainesville, March 2 to April 6, 1989.

9 Haroldo de Campos, "Evolução de Formas: Poesia Concreta" (1957), Teoria da Poesia Concreta, p. 52.

10 Iumna Maria Simon and Vinícius Dantas, ed., Poesia Concreta (São Paulo: Abril Educação, 1982), p. 103.

11 Cremilda Medina, "Haroldo de Campos, Perseguidor da Poética Universal," Estado de São Paulo, Suplemento Literário 938, Sept. 22, 1984, p. 9.

12 Medina, "Perseguidor da Poética Universal," p. 9.

13 Albenísio Fonseca, interview with Haroldo de Campos, A Tarde (Salvador, Bahia), Dec. 17, 1986, p. 62.

14 See [Alberto] Guerreiro Ramos, A Redução Sociológica: Introdução ao Estudo da Razão Sociológica (Rio de Janeiro: MEC/ISEB, 1958), pp. 19-26 on "critical consciousness" and pp. 44-47 on the definition and description of sociological reduction. In the 2nd ed. (Rio de Janeiro: Tempo Brasileiro, 1965), pp. 19-20, Ramos acknowledges the aesthetic parallel suggested by Haroldo de Campos.

15 Haroldo de Campos, "A Poesia Concreta e a Realidade Nacional," Tendência 4 (1962), 86-87.

16 Antônio Risério, "Poesia Concreta: Por Dentro e Por Fora," Revista de Cultura Vozes 71 (1977), 60. Other observers point to contemporaneous developments such as Brazil's assuming world leadership in soccer through the career of Pelé, and the emergence of Bossa Nova as a planetary music.

17 For a synthetic account of the poems of the 1960s and seventies and readings of particular examples, see two essays by Claus Clüver: "Reflections on Verbivocovisual Ideograms," Poetics Today 3 (1982), 137-48, and "Languages of the Concrete Poem," Transformations of Literary Language in Latin American Literature: From Machado de Assis to the Vanguards (Austin: Abaporu Press, 1987), pp. 32-42. For translated examples, see the anthology Brazilian Poetry 1950-1980, ed. Emanuel Brasil and William Jay Smith (Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1983), pp. 58-84, 110-35, 136-37, and 146.

18 On the transition from concrete to more permissive experimentation, see César Espinosa's introduction "Corrosive Signs: For a Liberating Writing," Corrosive Signs, ed. Espinosa, pp. 5-22. The significant question of "clean" vs. "dirty" concrete is acknowledged by Marjorie Perloff in Radical Artifice: Writing Poetry in the Age of Media (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 114-16.

19 The scientifically-toned manifesto and multiple examples of this output appear in Processo: Linguagem e Comunicação, comp. Wlademir Dias-Pino, 2nd ed. (Petropolis: Vozes, 1973). Rare later manifestos were individual statements, not documents of associated movements; see, for example, Márcio Almeida, "The DEYEdeitic: A Post-Reading of Visual Poetry" (1985), Corrosive Signs, ed. Espinosa, pp. 99-07.

20 In Poética e Visualidade: Uma Trajetória da Poesia Brasileira Contemporânea (Campinas: Editora da Unicamp, 1991), Philadelpho Menezes sets up three categories for "visual poetry" (1960s through eighties): collage, where the visual is dominant; embalagem ("packaging"), in which the visual simply "decorates" words; and montage (intersignos), an ideal balance or interpenetration of signs, not necessarily verbal). The categorization is problematic in the treatment of verbal constructs with integrated graphic elements (more "poetic" than "visual"), which would include some of the richest recent Brazilian production. For an English version of an earlier formulation of this scheme, see Menezes's exhibition catalogue introduction "Guide for Reading Intersign Poems," Corrosive Signs, ed. Espinosa, pp. 39-43.

21 The umbrella term criação intersemiótica was the subtitle of the first two numbers of the arts journal Qorpo Estranho, the title of which is spelled differently (e.g., Corpo Extranho) with particular issues. Young writers used the term "constructivist" to dissociate their work from undisciplined "marginal" poetry and to align with a position of conscious internationalism.

22 Insert to his Regis Hotel (São Paulo: Edições Groovie, 1978), and quoted by Vinícius Dantas, "A Nova Poesia Brasileira & A Poesia," Novos Estudos CEBRAP 16 (1986), 43.

23 See Charles A. Perrone, "From Noigandres to 'Milagre da Alegria': The Concrete Poets and Contemporary Brazilian Popular Music," Latin American Music Review 6 (1985), 58-79.

24 According to Carlos Avila, "Constructive Language: The Generation of the 1970s in Brazil," Corrosive Signs, ed. Espinosa, p. 113.

25 Duda Machado, "A ROSA TATUADA," in Augusto de Campos et al., Navilouca: Almanaque dos Aqualoucos (Rio de Janeiro: Edições Gernasa, 1974), no pagination. An abridged version appears in Machado's Crescente (1977-1990) (São Paulo: Livraria Duas Cidades, 1990), p. 55.

26 Antônio Risério, "kamikaze da linguagem," in Wally Salomão et al., Muda (São Paulo: n.p., 1977), p. 9.

27 Philadelpho Menezes, achados (São Paulo: n.p., 1980), pp. 3-4, rpt. in nova leva: riocorrente construtiva 0 (1986), which is paginated not with numbers but with semaphores.

28 Augusto de Campos, "pós-tudo," Expoemas 1980-1985 (São Paulo: privately printed, 1985), no pagination.

29 Haroldo de Campos, "Poesia e Modernidade: O Poema Pós-Utópico," Folhetim, literary supplement of Folha de São Paulo, Oct. 14, 1984, pp. 3-5.

30 "Concrete Poetry and Beyond: A Conversation Between Haroldo de Campos and Julio Ortega," trans. Alfred J. Mac Adam, Review: Latin American Literature and Arts 36 (1986), 40.