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Material Poetry of the Renaissance/ The Renaissance of Material Poetry: A Selective Bibliography
Roland Greene & Harvard Students

from The Harvard Library Bulletin, Summer 1992, Vol. 3, No. 2

This list indicates editions and facsimiles of primary texts, criticism, history, background materials, and other texts relevant to the exhibition. Far from exhaustive, the bibliography identifies sources of particular interest for each rubric below. While the earliest items listed date from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, most appeared in the last generation or so and belong to the recent wave of attention directed to the material aspects of literary texts. Some titles, for instance collections of essays containing several useful texts, are listed under only the heading about which they have most to say, and may be consulted more broadly than the list indicates. The notes of the essays in this issue of the Bulletin provide further and more particular references, and should be treated as supplements to the list below.

Materiality in Poetry, Music, and the Plastic Arts

Altieri, Charles. "Surrealist 'Materialism.'" Dada / Surrealism 13 (1984): 94-103.

Bénabou, Marcel. "Rule and Constraint." 1983. Oulipo: A Primer of Potential Literature. Trans. Warren F. Motte, Jr. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986. 40-47.

Cavell, Stanley. "Music Discomposed." 1967. Must We Mean What We Say? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976. 180-212.

Easthope, Antony. "Literature, History, and the Materiality of the Text." Literature and History 9 (1983): 28-37.

Fried, Michael. "Art and Objecthood." Artforum 5, no. 10 (1967): 12-23. Rpt. in Minimal Art: A Critical Anthology. Ed. Gregory Battcock. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1968. 116-47.

Gilman, Ernest. "Interart Studies and the 'Imperialism' of Language." Poetics Today 10 (1989): 5-30.

Gomringer, Eugen. "Poetry as a Means for the Structuring of a Social Environment." Trans. of Poesie als Mittel der Umweltgestaltung (1969). Trans. Mark E. Cory. Visible Language 10 (1976): 227-41.

Hollander, John. Vision and Resonance: Two Senses of Poetic Form. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Kosuth, Joseph. Art After Philosophy and After: Collected Writings, 1966-1990. Ed. Gabriele Guercio. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991.

Kristeva, Julia. Language the Unknown: An Initiation into Linguistics. Trans. of Le langage, cet inconnu (1981). Trans. Anne M. Menke. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. 3-40.

Miller, J. Hillis. "The Triumph of Theory, the Resistance to Reading, and the Question of the Material Base." PMLA 102 (1987): 281-91.

Sound, Orality, Aurality: Theoretical Texts

Armantrout, Rae. "Poetic Silence." Writing / Talks. Ed. Bob Perelman. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985. 31-47.

Chopin, Henri. Poesie Sonore Internationale. Paris: Jean-Michel Place, 1979.

Cobbing, Bob. "Concrete Sound Poetry 1950-1970." 1970. The Avant-Garde Tradition in Literature. Ed. Richard Kostelanetz. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982. 385-91.

Forrest-Thomson, Veronica. Poetic Artifice: A Theory of Twentieth-Century Poetry. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1978.

Frye, Northrop, ed. Sound and Poetry. English Institute Essays 1956. New York: Columbia University Press, 1957.

Kristeva, Julia. "From One Identity To An Other." Trans. of "D'une identité l'autre" (1975). Desire in Language. Trans. Thomas Gora et al. Ed. Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. 131-40.

. Revolution in Poetic Language. Trans. of La Révolution du Langage Poétique (1974). Trans. Margaret Waller. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.

Lora-Totino, Arrigo. "Sound Poetry." 1982. Corrosive Signs: Essays on Experimental Poetry (Visual, Concrete, Alternative). Ed. César Espinosa. Trans. of Signos Corrosivos (1987). Trans. Harry Polkinhorn. Washington, D.C.: Maisonneuve Press, 1990. 84-88.

Reyes, Alfonso. "Las Jitanjáforas." 1929-30. Obras Completas. 23 vols. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1955-89. 14:190-230. And "Contribución a las Jitanjáforas." De Viva Voz. 8:211-12.

Tsur, Reuven. What Makes Sound Patterns Expressive? The Poetic Mode of Speech Perception. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1992.

Wesling, Donald. The Chances of Rhyme: Device and Modernity. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980.

Anthologies of Aural Poetry

Cobbing, Bob, ed. Etcetera: A New Collection of Found and Sound Poems. Cardiff: Vertigo Publications, 1970.

Kostelanetz, Richard, ed. Text-Sound Texts. New York: William Morrow, 1980.

McCaffery, Steve, and bp Nichol, eds. Sound Poetry: A Catalogue. Toronto: Underwhich Editions, 1978.

Sight, Visuality, Concretism

Arnheim, Rudolf. "Visual Aspects of Concrete Poetry." Literary Criticism and Psychology. Ed. Joseph P. Strelka. Yearbook of Comparative Criticism 7. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976. 91-109.

Caws, Mary Ann. The Art of Interference: Stressed Readings in Verbal and Visual Texts. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Ernst, Ulrich. "The Figured Poem: Towards a Definition of Genre." Visible Language 20 (1986): 8-27.

Garnier, Pierre. Spatialisme et Poésie Concrète. Paris: Gallimard, 1968.

Gefin, Laszlo K. Ideogram: History of a Poetic Mode. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982.

Gomringer, Eugen, and Reinhard Döhl. Poesía Experimental, Estudios y Teoría. Madrid: Instituto Alemán de Madrid, 1968.

Higgins, Dick. "Pattern Poetry as Paradigm." Poetics Today 10 (1989): 401-28.

. Pattern Poetry: Guide to an Unknown Literature. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987.

Kopfermann, Thomas, ed. Theoretische Positionen zur Konkreten Poesie. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1974.

Kostelanetz, Richard, ed. Visual Literature Criticism. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1979. Originally published in Precisely 3-5 and West Coast Poetry Review 19 (1979).

Levenston, Edward A. The Stuff of Literature: Physical Aspects of Texts and Their Relation to Literary Meaning. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992.

Marcus, Aaron. "An Introduction to the Visual Syntax of Concrete Poetry." Visible Language 8 (1974): 333-60.

Menezes, Philadelpho. Poetica e Visualidade: Uma Trajetória da Poesia Brasileira Contemporânea. Campinas: Editora da UNICAMP, 1991.

Morrocchi, Giuseppe. Scrittura Visuale: Ricerche ed Esperienze nelle Avanguardie Letterarie. Florence: G. D'Anna, 1978.

Pozzi, Giovanni. La Parola Dipinta. Milan: Adelphi, 1981.

Schmidt, Siegfried J. "Perspectives on the Development of Post-Concrete Poetry." Poetics Today 3 (1982): 101-36.

Seaman, David W. Concrete Poetry in France. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1981.

Steiner, Wendy. The Colors of Rhetoric: Problems in the Relation Between Modern Literature and Painting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. 197-219.

Varga, A. Kibédi. "Criteria for Describing Word-and-Image Relations." Poetics Today 10 (1989): 31-53.

Vos, Eric. "The Visual Turn in Poetry: Nominalistic Contributions to Literary Semiotics, Exemplified By the Case of Concrete Poetry." New Literary History 18 (1987): 559-81.

Vree, Paul de. "Visual Poetry." 1970. The Avant-Garde Tradition in Literature. Ed. Richard Kostelanetz. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982.

Anthologies of Visual Poetry

Bann, Stephen, ed. Concrete Poetry: An International Anthology. London: London Magazine Editions, 1967.

Bowler, Berjouhi, comp. The Word As Image. London: Studio Vista, 1970.

Gomringer, Eugen, comp. Konkrete Poesie: Deutschsprachige Autoren. Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam, 1972.

Kostelanetz, Richard, ed. Imaged Words and Worded Images. New York: Outerbridge and Dienstfrey, 1970.

Peignot, Jérôme. Du Calligramme. Paris: Chêne, 1978.

Solt, Mary Ellen, ed. Concrete Poetry: A World View. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969.

Wildman, Eugene, comp. Anthology of Concretism. Chicago: Swallow Press, 1969. Originally published in Chicago Review 19, no. 4 (1967).

Williams, Emmett, ed. An Anthology of Concrete Poetry. New York: Something Else Press, 1967.


Ávila, Carlos, et al. "Poesia Concreta 30." Código 11 (1986). No pagination.

Ballerini, Luigi, ed. Italian Visual Poetry 1912-1972. New York: Finch College Museum and Istituto Italiano di Cultura, 1973. 69-78.

Cobbing, Bob, and Peter Mayer, eds. Concerning Concrete Poetry. London: Writers Forum, 1978.

Kessler, Dieter. Untersuchungen zur Konkreten Dichtung: Verformen, Theorien, Texte. Deutsche Studien Band 30. Meisenheim am Glan: Verlag Anton Hain, 1976. 274-413.

McCullough, Kathleen, ed. Concrete Poetry: An Annotated International Bibliography. Troy, New York: Whitston Publishing Company, 1989.

Sackner, Ruth and Marvin, comps. Ruth and Marvin Sackner Archive of Concrete and Visual Poetry. Miami Beach: privately printed, 1986. 177-226; after repagination, 1-891.

Weiss, Christina. Seh-Texte: Zur Erweiterung des Textbegriffes in konkreten und nach-konkreten visuellen Texten. Zirndorf: Verlag für moderne kunst, 1984. 307-53.

The Technological Background: Alphabets, Literacy, Printing

Art of the Printed Book 1455-1955: Masterpieces of Typography Through Five Centuries From the Collections of the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. New York and Boston: Pierpont Morgan Library and David R. Godine, 1973.

Chappell, Warren. A Short History of the Printed Word. New York: Dorset Press, 1970.

Chartier, Roger. "The Practical Impact of Writing." A History of Private Life. Trans. of Histoire de la vie Privée (1986). Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. 4 vols. Cambridge: The Belknap Press, of Harvard University Press, 1989. 3: 111-59.

Colish, Marcia L. The Mirror of Language: A Study in the Medieval Theory of Knowledge. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.

Dornseiff, Franz. Das Alphabet in Mystik und Magie. TOIXEIA: Studien zur Geschichte des Antiken Weltbildes und der Griechischen Wissenschaft Heft 7. Leipzig and Berlin: Verlag, 1925.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. The Printing Press As an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early-Modern Europe. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979. Rpt. in a popular version as The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Febvre, Lucien, and Henri-Jean Martin. The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing 1450-1800. Trans. of L'Apparition du Livre (1958). Trans. David Gerard. Ed. Geoffrey Nowell-Smith and David Wootton. London: Verso, 1984.

Havelock, Eric A. The Literate Revolution in Greece and Its Cultural Consequences. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.

. The Muse Learns to Write: Reflections on Orality and Literacy From Antiquity to the Present. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.

Hirsch, Rudolf. Printing, Selling and Reading, 1450-1550. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1974.

McKitterick, Rosamond, ed. The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Minnis, A.J. Medieval Theory of Authorship: Scholastic Literary Attitudes in the Later Middle Ages. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988.

Ong, Walter J. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. London: Methuen, 1982.

Petrucci, Armando, ed. Libri, Scrittura e Pubblico nel Rinascimento: Guida Storica e Critica. Universale Laterza 542. Rome: Laterza, 1979.

Piedra, José. "The Value of Paper." Res 16 (1988): 85-104.

Saenger, Paul. "Silent Reading: Its Impact on Late Medieval Script and Society." Viator 13 (1982): 367-414.

Spencer, Herbert. Pioneers of Modern Typography. Rev. ed. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982.

Stoddard, Roger E. "Morphology and the Book From An American Perspective." Printing History 17 (1987): 2-14.

The Cultural Background: Religion, Politics, Art

Cave, Terence. The Cornucopian Text: Problems of Writing in the French Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Caws, Mary Ann. The Eye in the Text: Essays on Poetry, Mannerist to Modern. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.

Dieckmann, Liselotte. Hieroglyphics: The History of a Literary Symbol. St. Louis: Washington University Press, 1970. 1-128.

Elsky, Martin. Authorizing Words: Speech, Writing, and Print in the English Renaissance. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Morrison, Karl F. History As a Visual Art in the Twelfth-Century Renaissance. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.

Roston, Murray. Renaissance Perspectives in Literature and the Visual Arts. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Saenger, Paul. "Books of Hours and the Reading Habits of the Later Middle Ages." The Culture of Print: Power and the Uses of Print in Early Modern Europe. Ed. Roger Chartier. Trans. of Les Usages de l'Imprimé (XVe-XIXe Siècle) (1987). Trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989. 141-73.

Shumaker, Wayne. The Occult Sciences in the Renaissance: A Study in Intellectual Patterns. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.

Thomas, Keith. Religion and the Decline of Magic. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971.

Thorndike, Lynn. A History of Magic and Experimental Science. Vols. 5 to 8. New York: Macmillan, 1923-58.

Wardropper, Bruce W. Historia de la Poesia Lírica a lo Divino en la Cristianidad Occidental. Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1958.

Warnke, Frank J. Versions of Baroque: European Literature in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972.

Yates, Frances. Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

On Early Modern Material Poetics

Church, Margaret. "The First English Pattern Poems." PMLA 61 (1946): 636-50.

. "The Pattern Poem." Ph.D. dissertation, Radcliffe College, 1944.

Fowler, Alastair. Triumphal Forms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Hatherly, Ana. A Experiência do Prodígio: Bases Teóricas e Antologia de Textos-Visuais Portugueses dos Séculos XVII e XVIII. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional-Casa de Moeda, 1983.

Heninger, S.K., Jr. Touches of Sweet Harmony: Pythagorean Cosmology and Renaissance Poetics. San Marino, California: The Huntington Library, 1974.

Rypson, Piotr. "The Labyrinth Poem." Visible Language 20 (1986): 65-95.

On Hrabanus Maurus, De Laudibus Sanctae Crucis

Hrabanus Maurus. "Carmina." Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini. Monvmenta Germaniae Historica. 5 vols. Berlin, 1880-1953. 2:154-258.

. De Laudibus Sanctae Crucis. Opera Omnia. Ed. J.-P. Migne. Patrologia Latina 107. Paris, 1851. 1-294.

. De Laudibus Sanctae Crucis. Studien zur Überlieferung und Geistesgeschichte mit dem Faksimile-Textabdruck aus Codex Reg. Lat. 124 der vatikanischen Bibliothek. Ed. Hans-Georg Müller. Beiheft zum "Mittelateinischen Jahrbuch" 11. Düsseldorf: A. Henn Verlag, 1973.

. Louanges de la Sainte Croix. Trans. and ed. Michel Perrin. Paris and Amiens: Berg International and Trois Cailloux, 1988.

Flint, Valerie I.J. The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 173-99.

McKitterick, Rosamond. The Carolingians and the Written Word. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

. "Text and Image in the Carolingian World." The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe. Ed. Rosamond McKitterick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 297-318.

Mittelrheinisches Landesmuseum Mainz. Rabanus Maurus in seiner Zeit, 780-1980. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp Von Zabern, 1980.

On Simias of Rhodes's Technopaegnia

Simias of Rhodes. "The Axe of Simias," "Wings of Love." The Greek Anthology. Trans. W.R. Paton. 5 vols. London: William Heinemann, 1916-18. 5:126-29.

Fraenkel, Hermann. De Simia Rhodio. Gottingen: Dieterich, 1915.

Gow, A.S.F., ed. Bvcolici Graeci. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952. 171-85. Hutchinson, G.O. Hellenistic Poetry. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988. 17-18.

Powell, John U., ed. Collectanea Alexandrina. London: Oxford University Press, 1925. 116-20.

Pignatari, Décio. "Ovo Novo no Velho." Teoria da Poesia Concreta: Textos Críticos e Manifestos 1950-1960. By Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, and Haroldo de Campos. 3rd ed. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1987. 130-37.

Trypanis, C.A. Greek Poetry From Homer to Seferis. London: Faber and Faber, 1981.


On Palatino, Compendio del Gran Volume de l'Arte del Ben Scrivere

Goldberg, Jonathan. Writing Matter: From the Hands of the English Renaissance. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1990. 212-14.

Strange, Edward F. "The Writing-Books of the Sixteenth Century." Transactions of the Bibliographical Society (London) 3 (1895-96): 41-69.

On Spenser, The Shepheardes Calender

Alpers, Paul. "Pastoral and the Domain of Lyric in Spenser's Shepheardes Calender." Representations 12 (1985): 83-100.

Greene, Roland. "The Shepheardes Calender, Dialogue, and Periphrasis." Spenser Studies 8 (1990): 1-33.

Luborsky, Ruth Samson. "The Allusive Presentation of The Shepheardes Calender." Spenser Studies 1 (1980): 29-67.

. "The Illustrations to The Shepheardes Calender." Spenser Studies 2 (1981): 3-53.

McCanles, Michael. "The Shepheardes Calender As Document and Monument." Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 22 (1982): 5-19.

On Watson, Hekatompathia, or Passionate Centurie of Love

Watson, Thomas, The Hekatompathia or Passionate Centurie of Love. Facsimile of the 1582 edition. Introd. S.K. Heninger, Jr. Gainesville, Florida: Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1964.

. ´EKATOMAØIA. Ed. Cesare G. Cecioni. Università di Catania Pubblicazioni della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia 20. Catania: Università di Catania Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia, 1964.

On Puttenham, The Arte of English Poesie

Puttenham, George. The Arte of English Poesie. Ed. Gladys Doidge Willcock and Alice Walker. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1936.

Attridge, Derek. "Puttenham's Perplexity: Nature, Art, and the Supplement in Renaissance Poetic Theory." Literary Theory / Renaissance Texts. Ed. Patricia Parker and David Quint. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986. 257-79.

Montrose, Louis Adrian. "Of Gentlemen and Shepherds: The Politics of Elizabethan Pastoral Form." ELH 50 (1983): 415-59.

Parker, Patricia A. Literary Fat Ladies: Rhetoric, Gender, Property. New York: Methuen, 1987.

Whigham, Frank. Ambition and Privilege: The Social Tropes of Elizabethan Courtesy Theory. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1984.

On Cordovero, Pardes Rimmonim

Bloom, Harold. Kabbalah and Criticism. 1975. New York: Continuum, 1984.

Rothenberg, Jerome, ed. A Big Jewish Book: Poems and Other Visions of the Jews From Tribal Times to Present. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press-Doubleday, 1978. 392, 397-98, 421.

Scholem, Gershom G. Kabbalah. New York: Quadrangle / The New York Times Book Co., 1974.

. Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. 1941. New York: Schocken Books, 1961.

. On the Kabbalah and Its Symbolism. Trans. of Zur Kabbala und ihrer Symbolik (1960). Trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: Schocken Books, 1965.

On Díaz Rengifo, Arte Poética Española

Díaz Rengifo, Juan. Arte Poética Española. Facsimile of the 1592 edition. Colección primeras ediciones 7. Madrid: Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, 1977.

Hatherly, Ana. "Reading Paths in Spanish and Portuguese Baroque Labyrinths." Visible Language 20 (1986): 52-64.

Strosetzki, Christoph. Literatur als Beruf: Zum Selbstverständis gelehrter und schriftstellerischer Existenz im spanischen Siglo de Oro. Düsseldorf: Droste, 1987. 227-32.

On Lok, Sundry Christian Passions and other works

Roche, Thomas P., Jr. Petrarch and the English Sonnet Sequences. New York: AMS Press, 1989. 157-66, 549-52.

On Herbert, The Temple and Sixteenth- And Seventeenth-Century Devotional Poetry

Charles, Amy M., introd. The Williams Manuscript of George Herbert's Poems: A Facsimile Reproduction. Delmar, New York: Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1977.

Charles, Amy M., and Mario A. Di Cesare, introd. The Bodleian Manuscript of George Herbert's Poems: A Facsimile of Tanner 307. Delmar, New York: Scholars' Facsimiles and Reprints, 1984.

Asals, Heather A.R. Equivocal Predication: George Herbert's Way to God. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981.

Cook, Elizabeth. Seeing Through Words: The Scope of Late Renaissance Poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986. 1-71.

Elsky, Martin. "George Herbert's Pattern Poems and the Materiality of Language: A New Approach to Renaissance Hieroglyphics." ELH 50 (1983): 245-60.

Fish, Stanley. The Living Temple: George Herbert and Catechizing. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978.

Freer, Coburn. Music For a King: George Herbert's Style and the Metrical Psalms. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

Gilman, Ernest B. Iconoclasm and Poetry in the English Reformation: Down Went Dagon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Higgins, Dick. George Herbert's Pattern Poems: In Their Tradition. West Glover, Vermont, and New York: Unpublished Editions, 1977.

Martz, Louis L. The Poetry of Meditation. Rev. ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962. 288-320.

Patrick, J. Max. "Critical Problems in Editing George Herbert's The Temple." The Editor as Critic and the Critic as Editor: Papers Read at a Clark Library Seminar, November 13, 1971. Introd. Murray Krieger. Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1973. 3-40.

Pollard, David L. "The Organs of the Eye and Ear: Complementary Modes of Perception [in] George Herbert's The Temple." Cithara 22 (1983): 62-72.

Stein, Arnold. George Herbert's Lyrics. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968.

Summers, Joseph H. George Herbert: His Religion and Art. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954.

On Gaffarel, Curiositez Inouyez

Seligmann, Kurt. The Mirror of Magic. New York: Pantheon Books, 1948.

On Caramuel de Lobkowitz, Metametrica

Pastine, Dino. Juan Caramuel: Probabilismo ed Enciclopedia. Florence: La Nuova Italia, 1975. 27-152.

On Materiality in Modernist Poetics

Bense, Max. Einführung in die informationstheoretische Ästhetik: Grundlegung und Anwendung in der Texttheorie. Rowohlts Deutsche Enzyklopädie 320. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1969.

Bohn, Willard. The Aesthetics of Visual Poetry, 1914-1928. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

, ed. The Dada Market: An Anthology of Poetry. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.

Clark, T.J. "Clement Greenberg's Theory of Art." Critical Inquiry 9 (1982): 139-56. Rpt. in The Politics of Interpretation. Ed. W.J.T. Mitchell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983. 203-20. And in Postmodern Perspectives: Issues in Contemporary Art. Ed. Howard Risatti. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1990. 20-37.

Drucker, Johanna. "Typographic Manipulation of the Poetic Text in the Early Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde." Visible Language 25 (1991): 231-56.

Foster, Hal, ed. Vision and Visuality. Dia Art Foundation Discussions in Contemporary Culture 2. Seattle: Bay Press, 1988.

Frank, Joseph. "Spatial Form in Modern Literature." 1945. The Idea of Spatial Form. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1991. 31-66.

Fried, Michael. "How Modernism Works: A Response to T.J. Clark." Critical Inquiry 9 (1982): 217-34. Rpt. in The Politics of Interpretation. Ed. W.J.T. Mitchell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983. 221-38. And in Postmodern Perspectives: Issues in Contemporary Art. Ed. Howard Risatti. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1990. 38-53.

Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Partisan Review 6, no. 5 (1939): 34-49. Rpt. in Pollock and After: The Critical Debate. Ed. Francis Frascina. New York: Harper and Row, 1985. 21-33.

Hubert, Renée Riese. Surrealism and the Book. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.

Kenner, Hugh. "Art in a Closed Field." Virginia Quarterly Review 38 (1962): 597-613. Rpt. in The Avant-Garde Tradition in Literature. Ed. Richard Kostelanetz. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982. 204-15.

. The Pound Era. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1971. 76-260.

Masnata, Pino. Poesia Visiva: Storia e Teoria. Rome: Bulzoni Editore, 1984.

Perloff, Marjorie. The Futurist Moment: Avant-Garde, Avant Guerre, and the Language of Rupture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Rothenberg, Jerome. "Pre-face." Revolution of the Word: A New Gathering of American Avant Garde Poetry 1914-1945. Ed. Jerome Rothenberg. New York: The Seabury Press, 1974. XXX. Rpt. in Pre-faces and Other Writings. New York: New Directions, 1981. 99-111.

Sayre, Henry M. The Visual Text of William Carlos Williams. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983.

Taylor, Carole Anne. A Poetics of Seeing: The Implications of Visual Form in Modern Poetry. New York: Garland Publishing, 1985.

Webster, Michael. Reading Visual Poetry After Futurism: Marinetti, Apollinaire, Schwitters, Cummings. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1991.

Welsh, Andrew. Roots of Lyric: Primitive Poetry and Modern Poetics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978.

White, John J. "The Argument for a Semiotic Approach to Shaped Writing: The Case of Italian Futurist Typography." Visible Language 10 (1976): 53-86.

On the Noigandres Poets

Campos, Augusto de. "Entrevista." 34 Letras 4 (1989): 10-28.

Campos, Augusto de, Décio Pignatari, and Haroldo de Campos. Teoria da Poesia Concreta: Textos Críticos e Manifestos 1950-1960. 3rd ed. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1987. Excerpted as "From Teoria da Poesia Concreta: Textos Críticos e Manifestos 1950-1960." Trans. Jon M. Tolman. Studies in the Twentieth Century 7 (1971): 31-49. Includes the following essays: Pignatari, "Statement" (1950); Pignatari, "On Oral and Written Poetry" (1950); A. de Campos, "poetminus" (1953); and A. de Campos, "PointsPeripheryConcrete Poetry" (1956). Excerpted also in Poetics Today 3 (1982): 167-95. Includes the following essays: Augusto de Campos, "The Concrete Coin of Speech" (1956); Haroldo de Campos, "The Informational Temperature of the Text" (1960); and Pignatari, "Concrete Poetry: A Brief Structural-Historical Guideline" (1957). Two essays, "PointsPeripheryConcrete Poetry" and "Pilot Plan for Concrete Poetry" (1958) appear in The Avant-Garde Tradition in Literature. Ed. Richard Kostelanetz. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982. 257-66.

Campos, Haroldo de. "Structuralism and Semiotics in Brazil: Retrospect / Prospect." Trans. Maria Lúcia Santaella Braga and Haroldo de Campos. Dispositio 3 (1978): 175-87.

Clüver, Claus. "Languages of the Concrete Poem." Transformations of Literary Language in Latin American Literature. Ed. K. David Jackson. Austin: Abaporu Press, 1987. 32-43.

. "Reflections on Verbivocovisual Ideograms." Poetics Today 3 (1982): 137-48.

Franchetti, Paulo. Alguns Aspectos da Teoria da Poesia Concreta. Campinas: Editora da UNICAMP, 1989.

Simon, Iumna Maria. "Projetos Alternativos / Confronto de Poéticas." Revista Iberoamericana 43 (1977): 169-81.

Tolman, Jon M. "The Context of a Vanguard: Toward a Definition of Concrete Poetry." Poetics Today 3 (1982): 149-66.

On Olson, Maximus Poems

Bernstein, Michael André. The Tale of the Tribe: Ezra Pound and the Modern Verse Epic. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980. 225-87.

Bové, Paul. Destructive Poetics: Heidegger and Modern American Poetry. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

Butterick, George F. A Guide to the Maximus Poems of Charles Olson. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978.

Byrd, Don. Charles Olson's Maximus. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1980.

Dorn, Edward. "What I See in the Maximus Poems." 1960. The Poetics of the New American Poetry. Ed. Donald Allen and Warren Tallman. New York: Grove Press, 1973. 293-307.

Duncan, Robert. "Note on Poetics Regarding Olson's Maximus." 1956. The Poetics of the New American Poetry. Ed. Donald Allen and Warren Tallman. New York: Grove Press, 1973. 187-95.

Paul, Sherman. Olson's Push: Origin, Black Mountain, and Recent American Poetry. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978.

von Hallberg, Robert. Charles Olson: The Scholar's Art. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978.

On Brown, 1450-1950 and Other Texts

Brown, Bob. "My Reading Machine." Publishers' Weekly 117 (1930): 2353-54.

Campos, Augusto de. "Bob Brown: Poemas Óticos." 1965. À Margem da Margem. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1989. 126-41.

Ford, Hugh D. Published in Paris: American and British Writers, Printers, and Publishers in Paris, 1920-1939. New York: Macmillan, 1975. 302-11.

On Zukofsky, "Julia's Wild" and Other Texts

Anonymous. Review of Bottom: On Shakespeare. Times Literary Supplement, August 6, 1964: 699.

Campos, Augusto de. "Objetivo: Louis Zukofsky." À Margem da Margem. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1989. 113-25.

On Garnier and Garnier, Concrete Texts

Lengellé, Martial. Le Spatialisme. Paris: Editions André Silvaire, 1979.

Thomas, Jean-Jacques. "Collage / Space / Montage." Collage. Ed. Jeanine Parisier Plottel. New York Literary Forum 10-11. New York: New York Literary Forum, 1983. 79-102.

On Jandl and Contemporary German Concrete Poetry

Campos, Haroldo de. "Poesia de Vanguarda Brasileira e Alemã." A Arte no Horizonte do Provável. 4th ed. São Paulo: Editora Perspectiva, 1977. 155-83.

Gumpel, Liselotte . "Concrete" Poetry From East and West Germany: The Language of Exemplarism and Experimentalism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.

Hartung, Harald. Experimentelle Literatur und konkrete Poesie. Gottingen: Vandenhoek and Ruprecht, 1975.

Jandl, Ernst. Die schöne Kunst des Schreibens. Darmstadt: Luchterhand, 1976.

Kopfermann, Thomas. Konkrete Poesie: Fundamentalpoetik und Textpraxis einer Neo-Avantgarde. Europäische Hochschulschriften Band 408. Frankfurt am Main: Peter D. Lang, 1981.

On Morgan, Concrete and Other Poems

Crawford, Robert, and Hamish Whyte, eds. About Edwin Morgan. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990.

"Edwin Morgan: A Celebration." Chapman 64 (1991): 1-45.

On Paz, Discos Visuales and Other Material Poems

Franco, Jean. "'¡Oh mundo por poblar, hoja en blanco!' El Espacio y los Espacios en la obra de Octavio Paz." Revista Iberoamericana 37 (1971): 147-60. Rpt. in Aproximaciones a Octavio Paz. Ed. Ángel Flores. Mexico City: Joaquín Mortiz, 1974. 74-87.

Gertel, Zunilda. "Signo Poético e Ideograma en 'Custodia' de Octavio Paz." Dispositio 1 (1976): 148-62.

Lemaître, Monique. "Análisis de Dos Poemas Espaciales de Octavio Paz: 'Aspa' y 'Concorde' a Partir de las Coordenadas del Y Ching." Revista Iberoamericana 40 (1974): 669-74. Rpt. in Octavio Paz. Ed. Alfredo Roggiano. Madrid: Editorial Fundamentos, 1979. 247-53.

Milán, Eduardo, and Roberto Appratto. "Lectura de Huidobro, Girondo, Borges y Paz a la Luz de la Teoria de la Poesía Concreta." Poesía 34-35 (1977): 9-25.

Paz, Octavio, and Haroldo de Campos. Transblanco. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Guanabara, 1986.

Rios, Julian. "Solo a Dos Voces." Solo a Dos Voces. Barcelona: Lumen, 1973. Unpaginated.

Santí, Enrico Mario. "Octavio Paz: Crítica y Poética." Escritura y Tradición: Texto, Crítica y Poética en la Literatura Hispanoamericana. Barcelona: Editorial Laia, 1987. 103-26.

Weinberger, Deborah. "Ars Topoetica: The Topoemas of Octavio Paz." Dada / Surrealism 8 (1978): 124-33.

On Ashbery: "Litany" and Other Poems

Fite, David. "On the Virtues of Modesty: John Ashbery's Tactics Against Transcendence." Modern Language Quarterly 42 (1981): 65-84.

Lehman, David, ed. Beyond Amazement: New Essays on John Ashbery. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980.

McNeil, Helen. "Between Brass and Silver." Times Literary Supplement, June 5, 1981: 644.

Perloff, Marjorie. "Barthes, Ashbery, and the Zero Degree of Genre." Poetic License: Essays on Modernist and Postmodernist Lyric. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1990. 267-84.

. The Poetics of Indeterminacy: Rimbaud to Cage. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981. 248-87.

Vendler, Helen. "John Ashbery, Louise Glück." The Music of What Happens: Poems, Poets, Critics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.

On Drucker, The Word Made Flesh and Other Books

Drucker, Johanna. "Close Reading: A Billboard." Poetics Journal 2 (1982): 82-84.

. "Hypergraphy: A Note on Maurice Lemaître's Roman Hypergraphique." Poetics Journal 6 (1986): 109-16.

. "Letterpress Language: Typography As a Medium For the Visual Representation of Language." Leonardo 17 (1986): 8-16.

. "What I Know About Musicals / The Nature of Event." Splash 1, no. 2 (1984): 66-71.

. "Women and Language." Poetics Journal 4 (1984): 56-68.

Perloff, Marjorie. "Word Flash." Sulfur 26 (1990): 87-107.

On Augusto de Campos's Translations

Ascher, Nelson. "O Texto e sua Sombra (Teses Sobre a Teoria da Intradução)." 34 Letras 3 (1989): 142-57.

Campos, Haroldo de. "Da Tradução à Transficcionalidade." 34 Letras 3 (1989): 82-95.

. "Da Tradução Como Criação e Como Crítica." Tempo Brasileiro 4-5 (1963): 164-81. Rpt. in Metalinguagem: Ensaios de Teoria e Crítica Literária. 2nd ed. Petrópolis: Editora Vozes, 1970. 21-38. Trans. into French by Inès Oseki-Dépre in Change 14 (1973): 71-84.

César, Ana Cristina. "Bastidores da Tradução." Escritos da Inglaterra. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1988. 139-51.

On Howe, A Bibliography of the King's Book And Other Works

Howe, Susan. "Encloser." The Politics of Poetic Form: Poetry and Public Policy. Ed. Charles Bernstein. New York: Roof Books, 1990. 175-96.

Perloff, Marjorie. "'Collision or Collusion With History: Susan Howe's Articulation of Sound Forms in Time." Poetic License: Essays on Modernist and Postmodernist Lyric. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1990. 297-310.

On Mac Low, Texts and Performances

Mac Low, Jackson. "[Biography]." A Controversy of Poets: An Anthology of Contemporary American Poetry. Ed. Paris Leary and Robert Kelly. Garden City: Anchor Books, 1965. 539-41. Rpt. in The Poetics of the New American Poetry. Ed. Donald Allen and Warren Tallman. New York: Grove Press, 1973. 384-85.

. "Language and Politics." The Politics of Poetic Form: Poetry and Public Policy. Ed. Charles Bernstein. New York: Roof Books, 1990. 213-20.

. "Some Ways Philosophy Has Helped To Shape My Work." Poetics Journal 3 (1983): 67-72.

Rothenberg, Jerome. "Preface." In Mac Low, Representative Works 1938-1985. New York: Roof Books, 1986. v-x.

Postmodern Oral and Visual Poetries

Bayard, Caroline. New Poetics in Canada and Quebec: From Concretism to Post-Modernism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989.

Bens, Jacques. OuLiPo 1960-1963. Paris: Christian Bourgois Editeur, 1980.

"The Changing Guard." Times Literary Supplement, August 6, 1964: 673-716.

"The Changing Guard2." Times Literary Supplement, September 3, 1964: 773-832.

Draper, R.F. "Concrete Poetry." New Literary History 2 (1971): 329-40.

Foster, Hal, ed. The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture. Dia series #. Port Townsend, Washington: Bay Press, 1983.

Frank, Robert, and Henry Sayre, eds. The Line in Postmodern Poetry. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

Gomringer, Eugen. Zur Sache der Konkreten. 2 vols. St. Gallen: Erker, 1988. Vol. 1: Konkrete Poesie.

Lyons, Joan, ed. Artists' Books: A Critical Anthology and Sourcebook. Rochester, New York and Layton, Vermont: Peregrine Smith Books and Visual Studies Workshop Press, 1985.

McCaffery, Steve. North of Intention: Critical Writings 1973-1986. New York and Toronto: Roof Books and Nightwood Editions, 1986.

Messerli, Douglas, ed. "Language" Poetries: An Anthology. New York: New Directions, 1987.

Perloff, Marjorie. "Inner Tension / In Attention: Steve McCaffery's Book Art." Visible Language 25 (1991): 173-91.

, ed. Postmodern Genres. Oklahoma Project for Discourse and Theory 5. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

. Radical Artifice: Writing Poetry in the Age of Media. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Saper, Craig J. "Instant Theory: Making Thinking Popular." Visible Language 22 (1988): 371-97.

Sayre, Henry M., ed. The Object of Performance: The American Avant-Garde Since 1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. 174-210.

Waldrop, Rosmarie. "A Basis of Concrete Poetry." Bucknell Review 22 (1976): 141-51. Rpt. in The Avant-Garde Tradition in Literature. Ed. Richard Kostelanetz. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982. 315-23.